Showing category "Did You Know." (Show all posts)

Top 10 Seawater Swimming Pools in Europe

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, September 5, 2016,
The natural volcano swimming pool at Porto Moniz, Madeira.

We usually focus on indoor swimming pools on this blog, but a recent article by the Guardian provides an opportunity to take a look at some of the best seawater pools in Europe. No chlorine, pH correction, dilution, circulation, filtration, coagulation or heating required.
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Bather Loads, Pollution, Turnover...It's All Relative.

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Friday, August 26, 2016, In : Pool Water Pollution 
Swimming Pool Pollutionl

Relative Pollution
A pool that is 25 metres long, 12 metres wide, with an average depth of 1.5 metres will hold 450 cubic metres of water. If there are, say, 30 people in the pool, each of them will have 15 cubic metres of water each.
Contrast this situation with a spa pool. A spa will only hold about 3 - 10 cubic metres of water, depending on the type. Let's say we have a spa pool that holds 5 cubic metres and has 10 people in it. Each person now has only half of one cubic metre of water each....

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Run a Swimming Pool? You Need a PSOP!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Friday, August 26, 2016, In : Health & Safety 
Pool Safety Operating Procedures

The swimming pool and associated plant and facilities (such as the changing rooms, showers, pumps, filters etc.) should be operated and managed according to a robust set of procedures that have been devised following a comprehensive and rigorous assessment of the hazards and risks that are present.  These procedure are referred to as the Pool Safety Operating Procedures (PSOP) and are comprised of two sections, the Normal Operating Procedures (NOP) and the Emergency Action Plans (EAP). These ...

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Could Your Pool Turn Green, Like The Olympic Pool In Rio?

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Thursday, August 25, 2016, In : Pool Water Chemistry 


Apparently, an operator added hydrogen peroxide to the Rio Olympic Pool. The rationale behind the decision to add this chemical is not clear. It could have been intentional, as hydrogen peroxide is used in some swimming pools as an oxidiser. The problem is that the chemical is also used as a chlorine neutraliser. So when the hydrogen peroxide was added, it went to work and promptly neutralised all of the chlorine thus allowing organic plant life to thrive, since it now had water, sunlight, nu...
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Overchlorination - How to deal with it and get the pool open for business again!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Friday, July 22, 2016, In : Pool Water Chemistry 



It may be necessary to decrease the levels of chlorine on occasion and certainly following superchlorination. If you are going to be dumping a significant quality of swimming pool water for any reason, there would usually be a requirement to let the local water authority know and they would almost certainly require you to eliminate all traces of chlorine from the water before they granted permission to discharge (chlorine is harmful to aquatic organisms).

In normal operations, it would usual...


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Superchlorination - The Correct Way

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Thursday, July 21, 2016, In : Disinfection 

Image result for superchlorination


Following on from our previous post regarding hand-dosing of chlorine, here is some guidance on superchlorination.

Superchlorination is not recommended as a routine or even occasional method of shock dosing to compensate for inadequacies in pool treatment. It is generally bad practice, and can generate unwelcome by-products. But if something has gone wrong – poor results from microbiological testing perhaps, or a catastrophic breakdown in treatment – it may be necessary to superchlorinate....


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How to Hand-Dose Chlorine...The Right Way!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Thursday, July 14, 2016, In : Disinfection 


Sometimes there will arise a need to introduce chemicals into the pool manually (hand-dosing). This is a potential hazardous activity and should not be performed by people who have not received the appropriate level of training.

General Procedures

Always wear the appropriate PPE.

Always add the chemical to the water, NEVER add water to the chemical.

NEVER mix a chemical with another chemical. Only ever mix with water.

Never hand-dose chemicals into the swimming pool when occupied.

...


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Pool Managers - Do You Know How Your Filters Actually Work?

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Thursday, June 23, 2016, In : Coagulation & Filtration 


Filtration is an important element of effective pool water treatment. The basic principle is that the untreated water is passed through a filtering medium (such as a bed of sand). The water is able to pass through the gaps between the grains of sand (called ‘pores’), but anything larger than the pore size is trapped within the filtering medium.

Pool Water Clarity
A reduction in the clarity of the pool water is a risk to pool users. It is essential that bathers are able to assess the depth o...

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Swimming Pool Outlets Can Kill!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Friday, June 17, 2016, In : Health & Safety 


This week, the Royal Life Saving Society published a news article concerning the risk of drowning via suction entrapment in hot tubs.

The outlets of a swimming/spa pool are connected to a powerful circulation pumping system. If the outlets are blocked, whatever is causing the blockage will be exposed to the suction force of the circulation pumping system. The circulation pumps will be sucking on whatever is causing the blockage, causing a vacuum. At this point, it will be very difficult to rem...

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Is the commercial swimming pool sector regulated? YES (but not very well)!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Wednesday, May 25, 2016, In : Health & Safety 
swimming

Whilst there is no specific legislation covering the management of commercial swimming pool water, there is plenty of general legislation that is applicable. Read on for a quick primer.

Management Responsibility
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA) , the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations1999 (MHSWR) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) impose certain statutory duties on all managers of non-domestic swimming pools. Duties unde...

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Can you smell chlorine? Then it's probably a badly managed swimming pool.

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, May 23, 2016, In : Disinfection 
combined chlorine

When the disinfectant gets into the pool water, the free chlorine contained within in immediately gets to work and starts combining with pollution. Once chlorine combines it hangs around in the pool water and is no longer effective as a disinfectant and is now actually more of a pollutant itself. It needs to be removed from the pool by a combination of dilution and filtration.

Combined chlorine is measured by calculating the difference between the total chlorine and the free chlorine.
Free Chlo...

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Not bothering with water balance tests? You're asking for trouble!

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Thursday, May 19, 2016, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
swimming pool water balance testing

Balanced water testing is something that swimming pools should be doing weekly in order to determine whether pool water is 'balanced'. This refers to whether the water is corrosive or scale-forming, or neither (balanced).

Corrosive water is contains little calcium (soft water) and is therefore ‘hungry’ for that substance. It will eat away at anything that contains the calcium it needs. Tile grout is usually high in calcium and is therefore very vulnerable to attack from corrosive water. 

Sc...

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Got a Spa, Hot Tub etc.? You need to know about legionella.

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Friday, May 13, 2016, In : Health & Safety 
legionella in hot tubs

Legionella is a type of bacteria that is of particular concern to the pool operator, or indeed, any operator of a facility that has a hot and cold water system. The legionella bacteria causes legionairres disease, which is an infection of the lungs. The mortality rate is currently 12%, which means that if 100 people were to contract the disease during an outbreak, approximately 12 of them would die.

Legionella bacteria multiply in water and the disease is caught by inhalation. This means that ...

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Chlorine Gas Leaks - Pool Operators Beware

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Tuesday, April 26, 2016, In : Health & Safety 
danger of chlorine gas in swimming pools

Swimming pool operators ought to be aware that it is possible to create highly toxic gaseous chemical substances if something goes wrong in the plant room. For example: mixing calcium hypochlorite (an alkaline substance that contains chlorine) with an acidic substance (like sodium bisulphate - which is commonly referred to as dry 'dry acid') will result in a reaction that will produce chlorine gas.

The above scenario may happen because an operator inadvertently introduces a chemical into the i...
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What is pH and Why is it so Important?

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, April 25, 2016, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
pH in swimming pools

pH stands for the 'power of hydrogen' and is a critical factor in the treatment of pool water. The recommended range for the pH level to be maintained at is 7.2 - 7.4. The reason that the pH level needs to be kept between these values is that the disinfection efficiency of the chlorine  falls off significantly at higher pH levels and the coagulant will also not be as effective. At lower pH values, the pool water will be too corrosive.


The effect of the pH level on the disinfection process is a...
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Emptying Swimming Pools

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, April 25, 2016, In : Construction 
the risks involved when emptying swimming pools

The first thing to consider before going ahead with this task is whether it is really necessary to empty the pool at all. Many repairs to the pool lining and/or tiles etc. can be carried out by trained divers, without the need to empty the swimming pool at all. However, there are occasions where the pool water will need to be emptied. An example would be if any broken glass somehow found its way into the pool water. Because glass is completely invisible when submerged in water, the entire poo...

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Gross Microbiological Contamination

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, April 25, 2016, In : Pool Water Pollution 
microbiological contamination in swimming pools

All commercial swimming pools should be getting the pool water tested at a UKAS-accredited laboratory for microbiological contamination. In most pools this should be done on a monthly frequency, but certain pools, such as hydrotherapy pools, should be done on a weekly basis. The four standard tests and the acceptable levels for each are:

  • Aerobic Colony Count  > 10cfu/ml
  • Total Coliforms  >10cfu/100ml 
  • E. Coli  >1cfu/100ml
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa  >50cfu/100ml 

If you get the lab results back ...

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"Do I Need To Send My Staff On A Pool Plant Course?"

Posted by poolplantcourses.com on Monday, December 28, 2015, In : Frequently Asked Questions 
First, let's take a look at what the law says (only the parts directly relevant to training have been included)...

The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 places the following duties on employers:

Section 2. General duties of employers to their employees.
...the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of his employees.

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulatio...

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Use a bucket to discover if your pool has a leak

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Thursday, January 24, 2013, In : Useful Tips 
swimming pool leaks

If you suspect your pool has a leak, but need to know for sure, you can find out very easily by using the 'bucket-test'. Put some pool water in a bucket and then put the bucket in the pool on the top step. Get it so the level of the pool water is exactly level with the water in the bucket. Leave it for a couple of days and then compare the water levels. If there is a leek, the level of the pool water will be lower than the water level in the bucket.

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Cryptosporidia

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, June 12, 2012, In : Pool Water Pollution 
cryptosporidia in swimming pools

Cryptosporidia is a parasite that is of particular concern for pool plant operators because it is not killed by chlorine. The parasites live inside a protective shell called an oocyst which protect them from the chlorine in the swimming pool or spa water. If these oocysts are ingested by swallowing contaminated water, the cryptosporidia with hatch out of the shells and reproduce, causing a gastro-intestinal illness. When the newly-created oocysts are expelled from the body via the faeces, the...
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Possible Electrical Hazard?

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Wednesday, May 16, 2012, In : Funny Pics 

the dangers of electricity in swimming pools


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...you can make chlorine from salt?

Posted by www.poolplant courses.org on Monday, February 27, 2012, In : Did You Know... 
Sodium Hypochlorite is the chlorine disinfectant most commonly used in UK swimming pools. It's supplied in liquid form and is similar in appearance to household bleach, which itself contains approximately 5% Sodium Hypochlorite. It is possible to produce Sodium Hypochlorite on-site by passing an electrical charge through a solution of Sodium Chloride (salt water).

 sodium hypochlorite generation from salt

The benefits of this type of system are that there is no direct handling of hypochlorite chemicals and there will be reduced amoun...
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The Most Effective Pool Water Treatment Method Ever!

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Wednesday, February 22, 2012, In : Useful Tips 
In many areas of management (and life in general), there are a limited number of issues and concerns that have the most impact on whatever it is your trying to manage. Effective swimming pool water treatment and pool plant operation is no different. During one of our pool plant courses, you will learn all sorts of things in order to understand what's happening with the swimming pool water and be able to diagnose and rectify problems quickly. 

All sorts of things can go wrong with swimming pool...
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Relative Pollution

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, February 21, 2012, In : Pool Water Pollution 
A pool that is 25 metres long, 12 metres wide, with an average depth of 1.5 metres will hold 450 cubic metres of water. If there are, say, 30 people in the pool, each of them will have 15 cubic metres of water each.

Contrast this situation with a spa pool. A spa will only hold about 3 - 10 cubic metres of water, depending on the type. Let's say we have a spa pool that holds 5 cubic metres and has 10 people in it. Each person now has only half of one cubic metre of water each.

Even though there ...
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Breakpoint Chlorination

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, February 13, 2012, In : Disinfection 
A few people struggle to fully understand the concept of what is known as 'breakpoint chlorination' during the pool plant operators course. In basic terms, as far as pool plant operators are concerned, breakpoint chlorination describes the point at which there is twice the amount of free chlorine than combined chlorine.

Imagine a swimming pool that has high levels of pollution. If you were to introduce some much-needed chlorine into the pool, it would quickly end up as combined chlorine as it ...
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Latent Heat Transfer

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Monday, January 23, 2012, In : Videos 
Energy is used when increasing the temperature of something. Heat is transferred from something hot to something cool.This heat is called 'sensible heat'. Energy is also used when a change takes place in the state of something. For example, when liquid water turns into water vapour. 

Both of these forms of heat are used to achieve energy efficiencies in some air handling systems for swimming pool halls. In order to provide a healthy and comfortable environment for bathers, spectators and staff...
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The Chemistry of Water

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Monday, January 23, 2012, In : Videos 

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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Assessments

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Monday, January 23, 2012, In : Health & Safety 
This article aims to provide a worked example of a PPE assessment for the routine task of filling up the chlorine day tank with calcium hypochlorite granules. Please note that the assessment does not cover issues relating to chlorine gas and therefore, a separate assessment would need to be carried out for this.


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When Should I Backwash?

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Thursday, January 19, 2012, In : Frequently Asked Questions 
If you have the filter manufacturers instructions, refer to those as they will inform you of how often a backwash needs to take place. Quite often though, these instructions have been lost long ago, so this article will outline some recommendations. What happens to a filter over time is that as it does its job and collects within it all the pollution and contaminants that you don't want getting in your pool, it becomes blocked up. This process is actually helpful towards the beginning of the ...
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Backwash

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Wednesday, January 18, 2012,
Backwashing is the process of cleaning the filters. Consider that the job of the filters is to trap as much of the various types of pollution as possible and you will appreciate that over time, more and more of this pollution will build up within the filter media. At regular intervals, this accumulated pollution needs to be gotten rid of. The method is to reverse the flow of water through the filter, so instead of water going in at the top and coming out at the bottom, the water goes in at th...
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Dichlor and Trichlor

Posted by www.poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, January 17, 2012, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
For the purposes of pool plant operation, chlorinated isocyanurates (also referred to as stabilised chlorine) can be thought of as a combination of cyanuric acid and chlorine. Why would a pool plant operator want cyanuric acid in addition to just chlorine? The answer is because in outdoor pools that are exposed to sunlight, the chlorine will get diminished by the UV in the sunlight. It needs an additional chemical to be added to prevent this from happening. This chemical is cyanuric acid. It ...
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Cyanuric Acid

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, January 16, 2012, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
Cyanuric acid is mostly used in outdoor pools. The reason for this is that chlorine is broken down by ultra violet light. Sunlight contains ultra violet light and when the sun shines onto an outdoor pool the chlorine gets depleted very quickly. The pool plant operator needs a way of 'stabilising' the chlorine and that's where cyanuric acid comes in. Cyanuric acid binds with the hypochlorous acid (the disinfectant in chlorine) and makes it more resistant to degradation by UV. The drawback is t...
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Treatment of Potable Water

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, In : Videos 
Although this video is about the treatment of potable water treatment, many of the processes involved are very similar to the treatment of swimming pool water. In terms of pool plant operation, it's worth a look:


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Quickly Remove Excess Physical Pollution on Pool Surface

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, In : Useful Tips 
Excess physical pollution floating on the surface of the swimming pool can sometimes cause a problem for pool plant operators. The heavier physical pollution sinks to the bottom, but the lighter stuff remains floating around on the surface and looks extremely off-putting to pool users. This type pollution usually consists of things like; bits of float, plasters, hair etc. There will also be chemical pollution sitting on or around the surface of the pool, stuff like; biofilm, grease, sweat, mu...
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How to reduce customer complaints about cold swimming pool water, show them this video...

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, In : Videos 

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Bromine

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, January 9, 2012, In : Disinfection 

Bromine is a disinfectant that works in a similar way to chlorine, in that it oxidises pollution on contact. The active disinfectant produced by the addition of chlorine-based disinfectants is hypochlorous acid, whereas the active disinfectant produced by the addition of bromine-based disinfectants is hypobromous acid.

Bromine-based disinfectants are not widely used in conventional commercial pools, largely because it is known to sometimes cause a condition known as ‘bromine itch’ in so...


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Ultra Violet

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Thursday, January 5, 2012, In : Disinfection 
Ultra violet disinfection is a process whereby the swimming pool water flows through a UV chamber and is exposed to UV light. The UV light is harmful to bacteria and other micro-organisms because it mutates the DNA of the organism, which means that it can no longer reproduce. The UV chamber is installed in the plant room and once the swimming pool water has passed through the chamber, it will have been purified to the extent that any chlorine in the water will have also been removed. UV disin...
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Ozone

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Wednesday, January 4, 2012, In : Disinfection 
Ozone is a disinfection method that uses ozone to oxidise contamination in the pool water. It is a more powerful oxidiser than chlorine and will actually oxidise (and therefore, remove) chlorine from the pool water when it passes through the ozone dosing system. It is a non-residual disinfectant, which means that no ozone remains in the pool water once it has passed through the ozone dosing system in the plant room. This is different to chlorine because under normal circumstances, there will ...
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Balanced Water Testing

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, December 19, 2011, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
Balanced water testing is something that you should be doing weekly in order to determined whether you pool water is 'balanced'. This refers to whether the water is corrosive or scale-forming.

Corrosive water will eat away at grout, pump seals, pipework etc. (basically, anything it comes into contact with). Scale-forming water does the opposite of corrosive and instead of eating away at things it will form a scale on it (you're likely to see the effect of this on the heating element of your ke...
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Alkalinity

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, December 19, 2011, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
Alkalinity is the amount of alkaline salts (carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxide ions) present in the pool water. It is an important factor in the treatment of swimming pool water because it acts as a pH buffer. If your alkalinity levels are too low, you may find it difficult to control the pH level; when you add and acid, the pH level will drop too fast, then when you try to correct the problem, the pH level will shoot up past the level you want it at. If your alkalinity levels are too hig...
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Condensation

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, December 19, 2011, In : Air Handling 
One of the main problems for many swimming pools is condensation. Condensation happens when the water vapour in the air condenses into liquid water and forms a film on surfaces. This will then start to attack the fabric of the building and lead to expensive repair bills further down the road. For the pool operator, the objective is to keep this condensation to a minimum. This can be achieved by being aware of the temperature at which the water vapour in the air will condense into liquid water...
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Straining

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Monday, December 19, 2011, In : Coagulation & Filtration 
Straining is one of the processes taking place during filtration and is perhaps, the one most pool operators will be familiar with. The process involves dirty water passing through the filter media (usually sand) and particles of pollution becoming trapped in the small gaps (pores) between the grains of sand because they are too large to pass through.

Take a look at the picture (click to enlarge). In swimming pool filters, the size of the sand grains is usually 0.5 - 1.0mm. This results in a p...
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Filtration Rate

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Sunday, December 18, 2011, In : Coagulation & Filtration 
The filtration rate is the rate (in metres per hour) at which the pool water moves down through the filter during normal operation. It is not to be confused with the circulation rate, which is the rate (in cubic metres per hour) at which water is moving through the circulation system.

The filtration rate is calculated by dividing the circulation rate by the surface area of the filter. For example:

Circulation Rate: 100 cubic meres per hour
Filter Surface Area: 5.72 metres squared
Filtration Rate:...
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Physical Pollution

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Sunday, December 18, 2011, In : Pool Water Pollution 
Physical pollution is one of the three main categories of pollution that concerns pool plant operators (the other two being chemical and biological). As you might expect, physical pollution is made up of stuff that does not dissolve into the water:

  • dirt 
  • grit
  • sand
  • plasters 
  • bits of float  
Some of it will float around on the surface of the water and make it look unsightly. The deck-level surface water draw-off system will remove a good deal of this, but the skimmer and overflow channel designs are ...

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Free Chlorine

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Disinfection 
Free chlorine is measured with the DPD1 test. It indicates how much of the total chlorine in the pool has not yet reacted with any pollution (ie, combined) and is therefore free and available to carry out it's purpose as a disinfectant.

There should always be enough free chlorine in the pool to minimise the risk of cross-contamination. The minimum recommended amount is 0.5mg/l. any less than this and you will need to shut the pool. The maximum recommended amount is 2.5mg/l. There is no need to...
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Bacteriological Contaminants

Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Pool Water Pollution 
Every month, all public pools should be tested for bacteriological water quality by a UKAS accredited laboratory. These tests serve as a link of 'health check' and will give the pool operator an indication of the performance of the swimming pool plant system. There are four different tests that are carried out:

  • Aerobic colony count
  • Total coliforms
  • Escherichia coli
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Aerobic Colony Count

    The first test, aerobic colony count, is a test for the number of bacteria in the sample of ...

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    Sedimentation

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Coagulation & Filtration 
    Sedimentation is one of the processes that is taking place during filtration, the other two being straining and adsorption. Fine particulate matter settles on the upward-facing surfaces of the sand grains. The process of sedimentation can remove finer particles of pollution than straining. As the amount of sediment increases, the amount of space in between sand grains (pores) decreases. This will cause the velocity of water through the filter to increase. Further sedimentation can then no lon...
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    Adsorption

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Coagulation & Filtration 
    Adsorption is one of the processes taking place during filtration, the other two being straining and sedimentation. It is not to be confused with absorption. With adsorption, very small particles of pollution adhere to the surface of the sand grains. This process is promoted by electrostatic charges within the particles (similar to a balloon 'sticking' to a wall). Once particles begin to adhere to the sand grains, a sticky coating builds up, which promotes further adherence of particles onto ...
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    Coagulation

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Coagulation & Filtration 
    Coagulation is an important process in the swimming pool water treatment process. It helps to remove very small particles from the pool water. In a conventional swimming pool sand filter, the size of the gaps between the sand grains (pores) are around 70 microns. As the filter begins to trap particles, the size of the pores decreases. This is known as 'filter ripening'. When the filter is fully ripened, it will be capable of trapping particles the size of around 5 - 10 microns. The size of cr...
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    Source Water

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
    Source water refers to where the mains water that supplies your swimming pool comes from. The water companies collect water from a variety of sources. Some of it is collected from ground waters such as wells and boreholes etc., and some of it is collected from surface waters such as lakes, rivers, streams etc. The ground waters have a higher content of calcium carbonate and are known as 'hard' water. The surface waters don't have such a high calcium carbonate content because they haven't perm...
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    Cryptosporidia

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Pool Water Pollution 
    Cryptosporidia is an organism that pool operators need to be particularly aware of. The main problem with it is that the chlorine in the pool water will not kill it due to the fact that it is protected within a shell that the chlorine will not penetrate. Cryptosporidia causes an acute gastro-intestinal illness and is introduced into the pool water via faecal contamination. If someone has an accident in the pool and the result is a loose, as opposed to solid stool, you as pool operator are goi...
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    Oxidation

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Disinfection 
    Oxidation is a process that has a disinfecting effect on swimming pool water pollution. It's basically a reaction between the oxidiser (the chlorine for example) and the pollution. The oxidiser will take electrons from the pollutant substances in the water, which breaks down and kills them. It's a very similar process to combustion (burning) and rusting. You can also observe the process if you peel an apple and see brown areas start to appear after a while (if you don't eat it, that is). What...
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    Why Pool Water is Blue?

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Did You Know... 
    If you've ever seen a swimming pool being emptied, you will have noticed that as the volume of water decreases, so does the 'blueness' of the water. Why is this? Well, basically, water absorbs light. You probably already know that light at wavelengths that are visible to humans is made up of the seven colours of the spectrum, ie. Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet. Water absorbs light at shorter wavelengths first, so the red gets absorbed and is therefore not visible. The blue i...
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    Alkalinity

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
    If your total alkalinity levels are too high, or too low; you will have problems controlling the pH levels. High total alkalinity causes 'pH lock', low total alkalinity causes 'pH bounce'. 

    As pool plant operators, we all know that the pH of the swimming pool water is a critical factor. If the pH is too high, the disinfectant properties of the chlorine will be minimised. If the pH is too low, the swimming pool water will be too corrosive. Controlling the pH levels is usually a simple process w...
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    The Total Alkalinity Family

    Posted by poolplantcourses.org on Saturday, December 17, 2011, In : Pool Water Chemistry 
    If you carry out your weekly pool water balance test and find that the total alkalinity levels are low, you're going to need to add some sodium bicarbonate. This chemical will introduce some alkalinity into your pool without having too much of an effect on the pH level. The sodium bicarbonate that you add will go through various chemical reactions and some of it will convert into different chemicals according to what the pH level is at any given time. If the pH is high, some of the sodium bic...
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